cardiac flow
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4D flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for in vivo acquisition of time-resolved three-dimensional (3D) blood flow, thus enabling quantitative analysis of volumetric, time-varying hemodynamic quantities such as flow rates, wall shear stress (WSS), pressure difference, etc. 4D flow MRI is based on the phase...

Visualization and quantitation of multi-directional cardiovascular flow without the need for sedation or contrast is desirable across all practices of cardiology. Intraventricular flow mapping (iVFM) is one such method for multi-direction visualization. iVFM estimates the transverse flow from color Doppler ultrasound using the continuity equation....