data assimilation
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4D flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for in vivo acquisition of time-resolved three-dimensional (3D) blood flow, thus enabling quantitative analysis of volumetric, time-varying hemodynamic quantities such as flow rates, wall shear stress (WSS), pressure difference, etc. 4D flow MRI is based on the phase...

Measurement of pressure in a fluid flow is essential in engineering applications as well as in investigations of flow physics. Pressure measurement devices such as wall pressure ports, static tubes, pressure-sensitive paint, etc., can be invasive, and provide only point measurements or a surface distribution....